Uganda embraces many ecosystems, from the tall volcanic mountains to the densely forested swamps and rainforests, resulting in richly fertile land. Bantu speaking populations migrated and occupied most of the southern parts of the country and by the 16th century established various centralized kingdoms, such as the kingdoms of Buganda, Bunyoro-Kitara, and Ankole. In 1894, Uganda was placed under a formal British protectorate and established under administrative law. Uganda gained independence from Britain in 1962, but the period since then has been marked by ceaseless political conflict. In 1966, Prime Minister Obote assumed all government powers and set up a new constitution that proclaimed Uganda a republic and abolished traditional kingdoms. The Obote government was soon overturned in a military coup led by Idi Amin, who then led an eight-year-long military dictatorship that caused, other than economic decline, massive human rights violations. The Tanzanian army, backed by Ugandan exiles, waged a war of liberation and in 1979 gained control of the country, returning power under Obote’s leadership, which had one of the world’s worst human rights records: during an insurgency led by Museveni’s National Resistance Army (NRA), security forces destroyed a substantial section of the country. But, the NRA continued fighting since assuming power. The new government created by Museveni finally put an end to human rights abuses and attained political stability. With the broad economic reforms, Uganda has enjoyed one of the fastest-growing economies in Africa.